c. 1200, “cause a rising of; lift upright, set upright; build, construct,” from a Scandinavian source, such as Old Norse reisa “to raise,” from Proto-Germanic *raizjan (source also of Gothic ur-raisjan, Old English ræran “to rear;” see rear (v.)), causative of root *ris- “to rise” (see rise (v.)). At first sharing many senses with native rear (v.1).
Meaning “make higher” is from c. 1300 in the physical sense, as is that of “restore to life.” Of the voice, from late 14c. Meaning “increase the amount of” is from c. 1500; from 1530s of prices, etc. Meaning “to bring up” (a question, etc.) is from 1640s. Card-playing sense is from 1821. Meaning “promote the growth of” (plants, etc.) is from 1660s; sense of “foster, rear, bring up” (of children) is from 1744. Meaning “to elevate” (the consciousness) is from 1970. Related: Raised; raising.
Pickering [“A Vocabulary, or Collection of Words and Phrases Which Have Been Supposed to be Peculiar to the United States of America,” 1816] has a long passage on the use of raise and grow in reference to crops. He writes that in the U.S. raise is used of persons, in the sense “brought up,” but it is “never thus used in the Northern States. Bartlett  adds that it “is applied in the Southern States to the breeding of negroes. It is sometimes heard at the North among the illiterate; as ‘I was raised in Connecticut,’ meaning brought up there.”
c. 1600, “act of carrying off,” from Middle French rapture, from Medieval Latin raptura “seizure, rape, kidnapping,” from Latin raptus “a carrying off, abduction, snatching away; rape” (see rapt). Earliest attested use in English is of women and in 17c. it sometimes meant rape (v.), which word is a cognate of this. Sense of “spiritual ecstasy, state of mental transport” first recorded c. 1600 (raptures).
c. 1600, “ravisher, abductor,” from Latin raptor “a robber, plunderer, abductor, ravisher,” agent noun from past participle stem of rapere “to seize” (see rapid). Ornithological use is from 1873 (1823 in Latin plural Raptores).
(5 letters, 1 word)”Trump” = 88 (English Ordinal)
20 + 18 + 21 + 13 + 16 = 88 (mph)
“serving to discover or find out,” 1821, irregular formation from Greek heuriskein “to find; find out, discover; devise, invent; get, gain, procure” (from PIE *were- (2) “to find;” cognate with Old Irish fuar “I have found”) + -istic. As a noun, from 1860. Greek had heuretikos “inventive,” also heurema “an invention, a discovery; that which is found unexpectedly.”
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28 days (6 hours, 42 minutes, 12 seconds) from today (10/8 or 8/8) =
Thursday, November 5, 2020
28 days (6 hours, 42 minutes, 12 seconds) from today (10/8 or 8/8) =
mid-13c., “animating or vital principle in man and animals,” from Anglo-French spirit, Old French espirit “spirit, soul” (12c., Modern French esprit) and directly from Latin spiritus “a breathing (respiration, and of the wind), breath; breath of a god,” hence “inspiration; breath of life,” hence “life;” also “disposition, character; high spirit, vigor, courage; pride, arrogance,” related to spirare “to breathe,” perhaps from PIE *(s)peis- “to blow” (source also of Old Church Slavonic pisto “to play on the flute”). But de Vaan says “Possibly an onomatopoeic formation imitating the sound of breathing. There are no direct cognates.”
Meaning “supernatural immaterial creature; angel, demon; an apparition, invisible corporeal being of an airy nature” is attested from mid-14c.; from late 14c. as “a ghost” (see ghost (n.)). From c. 1500 as “a nature, character”; sense of “essential principle of something” (in a non-theological context, as in Spirit of St. Louis) is attested from 1680s, common after 1800; Spirit of ’76 in reference to the qualities that sparked and sustained the American Revolution is attested by 1797 in William Cobbett’s “Porcupine’s Gazette and Daily Advertiser.”
From late 14c. in alchemy as “volatile substance; distillate;” from c. 1500 as “substance capable of uniting the fixed and the volatile elements of the philosopher’s stone.” Hence spirits “volatile substance;” sense narrowed to “strong alcoholic liquor” by 1670s. This also is the sense in spirit level (1768). Also from mid-14c. as “character, disposition; way of thinking and feeling, state of mind; source of a human desire;” in Middle English freedom of spirit meant “freedom of choice.” From late 14c. as “divine substance, divine mind, God;” also “Christ” or His divine nature; “the Holy Ghost; divine power;” also, “extension of divine power to man; inspiration, a charismatic state; charismatic power, especially of prophecy.” Also “essential nature, essential quality.” From 1580s in metaphoric sense “animation, vitality.”
According to Barnhart and OED, originally in English mainly from passages in Vulgate, where the Latin word translates Greek pneuma and Hebrew ruah. Distinction between “soul” and “spirit” (as “seat of emotions”) became current in Christian terminology (such as Greek psykhe vs. pneuma, Latin anima vs. spiritus) but “is without significance for earlier periods” [Buck]. Latin spiritus, usually in classical Latin “breath,” replaces animus in the sense “spirit” in the imperial period and appears in Christian writings as the usual equivalent of Greek pneuma. Spirit-rapping is from 1852.
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c. 1300, philosophie, “knowledge, learning, scholarship, scholarly works, body of knowledge,” from Old French filosofie “philosophy, knowledge” (12c., Modern French philosophie) and directly from Latin philosophia, from Greek philosophia “love of knowledge, pursuit of wisdom; systematic investigation,” from philo- “loving” (see philo-) + sophia “knowledge, wisdom,” from sophis “wise, learned;” a word of unknown origin [Beekes]. With many spelling variants in Middle English (filozofie, phelosophie, etc.).
From mid-14c. as “the discipline of dealing in rational speculation or contemplation;” from late 14c. as “natural science,” also “alchemy, occult knowledge;” in the Middle Ages the word was understood to embrace all speculative sciences. Meaning “system a person forms for conduct of life” is attested from 1771. The modern sense of “the body of highest truth, the science of the most fundamental matters” is from 1794.
Nec quicquam aliud est philosophia, si interpretari velis, praeter studium sapientiae; sapientia autem est rerum divinarum et humanarum causarumque quibus eae res continentur scientia. [Cicero, “De Officiis”]
[Philosophical problems] are, of course, not empirical problems; but they are solved through an insight into the workings of our language, and that in such a way that these workings are recognized — despite an urge to misunderstand them. The problems are solved, not through the contribution of new knowledge, rather through the arrangement of things long familiar. Philosophy is a struggle against the bewitchment (Verhexung) of our understanding by the resources of our language. [Ludwig Wittgenstein, “Philosophical Investigations,” 1953]
VALIS by PKD (Page 209) “Sophia is two,” Linda said. “She was born in 1976. We tape what she says.” “Everything is taped,” Mini said. “Sophia is surrounded by audio and video recording equipment that automatically monitors her constantly. Not for her protection, of course; VALIS protects her – VALIS, her father.”
Witch Hysteria From June 10 through September 22, 1692, Salem, Massachusettsexperienced a witch hysteria. Over the 15 week period, 19 men and women were hanged for , and more than 100 accused people were jailed. Although some believed the cause for hysteria was a factor such as ergot poisoning, the cause was actually class division.
An Old English masc. noun meaning “male witch, wizard, soothsayer, sorcerer, astrologer, magician;” see witch. Use of the word in modern contexts traces to English folklorist Gerald Gardner (1884-1964), who is said to have joined circa 1939 an occult group in New Forest, Hampshire, England, for which he claimed an unbroken tradition to medieval times. Gardner seems to have first used it in print in 1954, in his book “Witchcraft Today” (“Witches were the Wica or wise people, with herbal
knowledge and a working occult teaching usually used for good ….”). In published and unpublished material, he apparently only ever used the word as a mass noun referring to adherents of the practice and not as the name of the practice itself. Some of his followers continue to use it in this sense. According to Gardner’s book “The Meaning of Witchcraft” (1959), the word, as used in the initiation ceremony, played a key role in his experience:
I realised that I had stumbled upon something interesting; but I was half-initiated before the word, ‘Wica’ which they used hit me like a thunderbolt, and I knew where I was, and that the Old Religion still existed. And so I found myself in the Circle, and there took the usual oath of secrecy, which bound me not to reveal certain things.
In the late 1960s the term came into use as the title of a modern pagan movement associated with witchcraft. The first printed reference in this usage seems to be 1969, in “The Truth About Witchcraft” by freelance author Hans Holzer:
If the practice of the Old Religion, which is also called Wicca (Craft of the Wise), and thence, witchcraft, is a reputable and useful cult, then it is worthy of public interest.
And, quoting witch Alex Sanders:
“No, a witch wedding still needs a civil ceremony to make it legal. Wicca itself as a religion is not registered yet. But it is about time somebody registered it, I think. I’ve done all I can to call attention to our religion.”
Sanders was a highly visible representative of neo-pagan Witchcraft in the late 1960s and early 1970s. During this time he appears to have popularized use of the term in this sense. Later books c. 1989 teaching modernized witchcraft using the same term account for its rise and popularity, especially in U.S.
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Old English witnes “attestation of fact, event, etc., from personal knowledge;” also “one who so testifies;” originally “knowledge, wit,” formed from wit (n.) + -ness. Christian use (late 14c.) is as a literal translation of Greek martys (see martyr). Witness stand is recorded from 1853.
Yggdrasil (from Old Norse Yggdrasill) is an immense mythical tree that plays a central role in Norse cosmology, where it connects the Nine Worlds. Yggdrasil is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, and the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson.
“What you make from a tree should be at least as miraculous as what you cut down.” ― Richard Powers, The Overstory
28 days (6 hours, 42 minutes, 12 seconds) from today (10/8 or 8/8) =
Old English hærfest “autumn,” as one of the four seasons, “period between August and November,” from Proto-Germanic *harbitas (source also of Old Saxon hervist, Old Frisian and Dutch herfst, German Herbst “autumn,” Old Norse haust “harvest”), from PIE root *kerp- “to gather, pluck, harvest.”
In Old English and Middle English primarily a season name, with only an implied reference to the gathering of crops. The borrowing of autumn and the use of fall (n.) in a seasonal sense gradually focused the meaning of harvest to “the time of gathering crops” (mid-13c.), also to the action itself and the product of the action (after c. 1300), which became its main senses after 14c. Figurative use by 1530s. As an adjective from late 14c. Harvest home (1570s) was a festive celebration of the bringing home the last of the harvest; harvest moon (1704) is that which is full within a fortnight of the autumnal equinox.
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time of merrymaking, 1590s, from Latin Saturnalia, ancient Roman festivals of Saturn (held in December), a time of merrymaking for all, from neuter plural of adjective Saturnalis “pertaining to Saturn,” from Saturnus (see Saturn). They correspond to the Greek Kronia. The extended sense of “period of unrestrained revelry” is first attested 1782. Related: Saturnalian.
seventh day of the week, Old English sæterdæg, sæternesdæg, literally “day of the planet Saturn,” from Sæternes (genitive of Sætern; see Saturn) + Old English dæg (see day). Partial loan-translation of Latin Saturni dies “Saturn’s day” (compare Dutch Zaterdag, Old Frisian Saterdi, Middle Low German Satersdach; Irish dia Sathuirn, Welsh dydd Sadwrn). The Latin word itself is a loan-translation of Greek kronou hēmera, literally “the day of Cronus.”
Unlike other English day names, no god substitution seems to have been attempted, perhaps because the northern European pantheon lacks a clear corresponding figure to Roman Saturn. A homely ancient Nordic custom, however, seems to be preserved in Old Norse laugardagr, Danish lørdag, Swedish lördag “Saturday,” literally “bath day” (Old Norse laug “bath”).
German Samstag (Old High German sambaztag) appears to be from a Greek *sambaton, a nasalized colloquial form of sabbaton “sabbath,” also attested in Old Church Slavonic sabota, Polish sobota, Russian subbota, Hungarian szombat, French samedi.
Saturday night has been used figuratively to suggest “drunkenness and looseness in relations between the young men and young women” at least since mid-19c. Saturday-night special “cheap, low-caliber handgun” is American English, attested from 1976 (earlier Saturday-night pistol, 1929).
“God, a god,” mid-13c. in French and Latin salutations and exclamations in English works, see Zeus. Never nativized, but it continued to appear in adopted Latin expressions such as deus absconditus “hidden god,” and deus ex machina “a power, event, person, or thing that arrives conveniently to solve a difficulty (especially in a play or novel). This (1690s) is from a Modern Latin translation of Greek apo mekhanes theos, literally “the god from the machina,” the name of the device by which “gods” were suspended over the stage in Greek theater, from Greek (Attic) mēkhanē “device, tool, contrivance” (see machine (n.)). The fem. is dea ex machina.
1773 (as St. A Claus, in “New York Gazette”), American English, from dialectal Dutch Sante Klaas, from Middle Dutch Sinter Niklaas “Saint Nicholas,” bishop of Asia Minor who became a patron saint for children. Now a worldwide phenomenon (Japanese santakurosu). Father Christmas is attested from 1650s.
“So that crazy guy had a name. A perfectly normal one. Kyle, for God’s sake . It made things worse because it made them more real.” (Page 796, 7+9+6=22, of ’11/22/63′ Copyright 2012 by Stephen King)